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Crime and Its Causes
The problem of crime has been a constant menace to society. From petty theft to robbery with violence, crime continues to be a migraine to the government of the day. The rise in crime rates over many states is alarming, and testament of the myriad of challenges that face society. The need to overcome the majority of these problems has led many a government into seeking solutions to a problem of which they do not know the causes. All through the United States of America, the causes of crime seem to be identical in nature. The war the government wages against crime can only be won with a deep understanding of the roots of this vice. In order to overcome crime in modern USA society, the government must have a deep understanding of the causes of crime, and the factors that lead to increased crime levels in society. This paper attempts to uncover the causes of crime and the causal linkage, if any, between these causes and the rampancy of crime.
Crime persists as one of the challenges societies face. The constant rise in crime rates the United States over is a certain cause for alarm. This is because many neighborhoods, which are at the grassroots of crime, continue to feel the adverse effects of this problem (Darrow, 2009). Many young men and women lose their lives daily because of crime in one way or another. Many are part of the criminal gangs that control neighborhoods, and even more are victims of robbery and homicide.
It is necessary to fix this problem, and the only way to do so is to understand the causes of crime in their entire scope (Burke, Tomlinson, Cooper, 2011). This is because the only way to fix a problem as big as this one is by first understanding its causes. There is a great need to grasp the full understanding of the causes of crime in order to effectively combat this problem. In almost all the neighborhoods in which crime is a constant threat, there are a number of baseline underlying factors that are responsible for this high crime rates. The need to address these underlying factors is high as this is the only way crime can be significantly reduced all over the United States of America.
The countless efforts to solve the menace of crime in many American neighborhoods is testament of the need to understand the causes of crime. Factors such as poverty, low education levels and unemployment have been instrumental in perpetuating this problem. This is because many of the perpetrators of crime have been found to have these traits in common. Based on this, it is necessary to address these factors in a conclusive manner, to prevent further growth of these cancerous tumors that continue to eat away society. Only by addressing these factors, will society witness reduced crime rates.
It is mandatory that the causes of crime are understood, in order to reduce the rampancy of crime in the United States of America. This research is geared at understanding the causes of crime in all the neighborhoods of the United States of America (Dressler, 2002). It is aimed at getting the full understanding of these problems in order to solve the problem of crime. By determining the baseline causes of crime in American neighborhoods, efforts to curb, crime can be taken. Taking these efforts from an informed point of view is vital in guaranteeing the successful prevention of crime in America.
The recent drops in crime rates all over the United State of America have been met with jubilant citizens. These citizens are happy that their societies are much safer than they had been before the surveys were conducted. However, reduced crime rates do not spell absence of any crime at all, seeing that many innocent civilians continue to be the victims of heinous crimes ranging from sexual assault to robbery with violence. This is a great impediment to society since it highlights the sad reality that the underlying causes of crime have not yet been addressed.
The current condition is similar to that of a physician prescribing medicine to soothe the patient’s pain, without actually curing the disease causing the pain. The need for the underlying causes of crime in the United States of America to be addressed is very great. Many civilians suffer because of a few individuals who wield no power per se, except the power of a gun or a club at hand. There is growing concern that the government, in collaboration with its security organs, is doing very little to address the menace of crime. These forces are primarily concerned about punishing the perpetrators of crime while paying lip service to the actual causes of crime in the United States of America today. The case of Florida is a good example of the sad reality concerning crime in the American society at the moment.
Causes of Crime in Florida
The causes of crime can be defined as biological, sociological or even psychological. This is because the underlying causes of crime depend on the biological and psychological state of the individual, as well as the social circles in which the individual resides . The deadly combination of these forces is capable of churning out extremely violent, hardcore criminals out of young men and women. Among the leading causes of crime in Florida and the United States of America, is peer influence. A vast majority of the perpetrators of crime, up to 90%, are young men who have been influenced negatively by the society in which they live. Peer influence takes advantage of two main aspects to guarantee success; that is weakness and poor judgment.
The nature of many young men and women pushes them into conforming to the socially acceptable standards in the various aspects of their lives. Many of these aspects include drugs, alcohol, sex, money and even fashion. The ability of the few rotten tomatoes among the young men and women to manipulate others into crime as a means of social conformity plays a central role in the propagation of crime.
Many youths believe that getting into crime will make them popular, will make them respected and will give them the money they need to conform in terms of drugs, sex, alcohol and fashion. The psychological and emotional weaknesses present in many of these youths prevent them from refusing to conform to ‘socially acceptable standards’. The fact that many of these youths are unable to control their own wills leaves them at the mercy of the many ‘wolves’, waiting to increase the numbers of their gang members.
Poor parenting is also one of the leading causes of crime in Florida and the United States at large. The power that a good household has in shaping the characters and mentalities of growing children cannot be underestimated. All human beings have an innate desire to belong, and this desire is extended to cover the desire to belong in a family (Crutchfield, 2000). Young children are especially vulnerable to this desire, and they wish to belong to a complete family. However, the recent rising trend in single-parent households plays an essential role in the propagation of crime. In Florida, a survey conducted found out that children who have grown up in fatherless households are more likely to commit crimes than children who have grown up in normal households.
The absence of a father figure to guide and mold the characters of men in their growth process results, in children raising themselves. Many youths, particularly young men, have been fooled into believing that joining a gang and killing many innocent people, is the way to prove oneself as a man. This has been detrimental in the fight against crime, seeing that many youths grow up with false notions of manhood: notions that revolve around crime, assault and violence.
The failure of parents to control, supervise and monitor their children’s habits also plays a role in crime. A family may be complete, but failure of parents to direct their children in the right paths results, in misguided children that can be easily lured into vices such as crime and prostitution. It is necessary that parents dedicate themselves to guiding their children in the right paths.
The distinct relation between poverty and crime rates cannot go overlooked. This is because it is normal to have high crime rates in neighborhoods or regions that experience high poverty levels. Poverty forces many individuals to live below the accepted standards that a human being should live in, in society. The absence, or lack thereof, of money to cater for the needs of individuals and families forces many of these members of society into crime. It is no secret that a crime has the potential of making quick, easy money, but is also no secret that it comes at a price.
Many individuals weigh their possible success against their chances of getting caught and possible punishment, and the result is a no-brainer. Many individuals think about their families staying hungry and without the basic needs and the thought of that force many of them into crime as a means of survival. Although human beings are very different from animals, the world is not much different from a jungle, and only the fittest survive.
Many individuals have to look for a means of survival in order to guarantee that they will live to see another day (Zimring, Hawkins, 2009). The high unemployment rates do little to curtail the spread of crime among the population, seeing that many individuals do not have employment that keeps them away from crime. The correlation between high unemployment rates and crime rates is outright visible, and there is a need to provide employment to many idle youths who have the potential of venturing into crime.
The affection that many Americans have to material things goes back a long time in history. This affection is not restricted to Americans only, but to the entire global population. The desire to live in good houses, drive good cars, wear fashionable clothes and live an extravagant life has a great influence on the minds of many Americans. It is not surprising then that many young Americans rarely dream of career success, but instead, of being rich.
It is the dream of many, but very few have the opportunity to witness their dreams become reality in a legal and honest manner. The bulk of the population, which is forced to contend with settling for way less than they had hoped for, is forced to look for a way of making their dreams realities, as well (Longford, 1958). Many of these individuals engage in crime as a form of getting the money they are incapable of getting legally. The result is a crime-infested society that sees countless crimes in fraud, petty theft, and robbery with violence and even burglary. This pushes the crime rate in Florida, as well as the rest of America, a couple of notches higher than it was.
Deprived neighborhoods have some of the highest crime rates in Florida. The absence of social amenities and luxuries that other, more affluent, neighborhoods enjoy forces many youths into crime. The realization that these neighborhoods are unlikely to change into the neighborhoods they ought to be, leaves only one option for many young men and women-break out of the poverty chain and move from the neighborhood.
The fact that this is a difficult feat to achieve in the right and legal manner leaves many opting for crime (Reamer, 2005). The effect that these neighborhoods have on the crime rates is very significant. It instills within the youths, a desire to breakout of the poverty chain they live in at whatever cost. Some of these youths opt to develop their talents, especially in sports and athletics while some opt for crime.
The few who make it through the use of their talent successfully breakout of the poverty chain, but the many who fail to succeed end up frustrated and still in the poverty-ridden neighborhoods they desperately wanted to leave. Many of those who fail, end up as gangsters or mobsters in their towns and neighborhoods. The result is a big boost to the crime rates of the society in which they live.
The need to have equality in all the neighborhoods, in America, is a pressing one. It is instrumental in removing the feelings of discrimination and favoritism that many individuals in deprived neighborhoods feel. The alleviation of these feelings will play a great role in the fight against crime, seeing that individuals in these neighborhoods have one-less incentive to venture into crime as a ‘career’ than they did before these feelings are removed. This will help to reduce the crime rates in Florida and the United States of America (Burkhead, 2005).
The case in Florida is not much different from that of the United States in general. Other factors among them deprived neighborhoods, corruption, poverty and unemployment also play a key role in the propagation of crime not only in Florida, but also in America.
The causes of crime in Florida are the same causes of crime in the United States of America. The states of America are all similar in their economic patterns. Although some states are richer than others, in every state there are the privileged citizens and the underprivileged citizens. The incentives to commit crime are similar in all states and so the causes of crime are the same in all the states of America.
The research into crime and its causes are aimed at understanding the causes of crime, not in one of the states of America, but in the whole of America. It seeks to unearth the underlying causes that push many youths into the world of crime. It seeks to look at the baseline causes of crime in all the states of America and determine if the causes are the same.
This research was conducted to highlight the causes of crime. The primary audiences that it is targeting include the Federal government, the State government, schools and youth. These organs are the key players in the propagation of crime, and possibly the key players in curbing crime, as well. It aims to enlighten these players on their roles in propagation of crime, and suggest possible ways they can help in the fight against crime.
The variables in this study remain to be crime and the causes of crime. Crime is the dependent variable while the causes of crime are the independent variables. The nature of crimes that are committed in the United States of America is very diverse. However, the underlying causes of crime are all the same.
Sources of Data
Some of the data sources include journals, research papers, and books that highlight the causes of crime in the United States of America. Census reports from the government will also be used to highlight the population composition of crime prone areas. These reports will also identify the areas most affected by crime and the possible triggers of crime in these areas. Crime reports by security agencies such as Homeland Security and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) will be instrumental in understanding the causes of crime.
Data Collection Instruments and Procedures
Data collection for this study will depend on content analysis of the data sources used. The bulk of information that will be collected on crime rates and the causes of crime will most likely be in the form of reports; warranting the application on content analysis as the preferred method of research analysis. The causes of crime in the United States of America form the unit of analysis for this study.
Data Analysis and Interpretation
The causes of crime in the United States will be sought out following a baseline approach. The causes will first be grouped as sociological, psychological or biological. This will narrow the varying causes into three groups. These causes will then be analyzed to determine if some are sub-causes of others. This will produce the main causes of crime in the United States.
The research into the causes of crime has yielded a number of causes that have appeared in all the states of America. It is noteworthy that a majority of these causes are sociological, with very few being psychological.
Among the psychological causes of crime in the United States of America are poor judgment and psychological weakness. Many of the perpetrators of crimes are, more often than not, the handymen or women. The crime bosses do very little to soil their hands. The fact that many of these individuals give into pressures to join criminal gangs, is enough evidence of the apparent psychological weakness that many of these individuals suffer.
Their inability to stand their ground is responsible for their recruitment into crime. Many individuals that venture into crime do it as a means of survival, and rarely view their actions as crimes. Their actions are centered on their survival, and as long as they are not caught, they do not view their actions as criminal offences. This is the most common flaw that criminals share.
The sociological causes of crime are the main causes of crime. These causes can be further divided into causes within the institution of the family and causes within the society in general. The causes of crime that stem from the family include lack of love to children, generational cycles and poor parenting. The failure of parents to show their children love results in many children looking for avenues of overcoming the feelings of neglect they bear.
More often than not, the avenue is crime. In many families, crime also seems to be a ‘hereditary’ aspect of their lives. Many individuals, who have ever been convicted of or taken part in crimes, have at least one family member that has experienced the same thing. It is not possible to prove whether this is a genetically hereditary trait, however. The high rates of absentee fathers push many young men into crime. These fathers are absent either due to abandonment, neglect or serving jail terms. These factors contribute to crime by affecting the institution of the family.
The general aspects of society that are responsible for crime include corruption, media violence, deprived neighborhoods and poverty and unemployment. Corruption in government security agencies plays a primary role in criminal activity. The inability of security agencies to tackle crime effectively due to vices such as bribery and conflict of interest is a common feature in America (Tipp, Buggey, 2001). Many security officers receive bribes from criminals or have stakes in criminal activities such as drug trafficking.
This makes the fight against crime a difficult one. Many young children get their perceptions of violence from the media. From the deep affection of the American public towards crime-fighting superheroes to movies and videogames that depict violence, many youths itch to live out these fantasies. The result is a group of youth that will commit crimes as a result of the actions they witness.
Deprived neighborhoods are huge influences on the lives of many youths. The fact that the youths in these neighborhoods are incapable of accessing some basic social amenities leaves many of them frustrated. The inability of the government to provide these amenities is countered with a youth force ready to engage in crime to obtain that which the government has failed to provide. Another common feature of these neighborhoods is high unemployment and poverty rates. These only serve as incentives for the youths to commit crimes, seeing that many desperately desire to escape poverty.
The decreased levels of crime over the past two decades are a blessing to the American society, albeit with a catch. This is because even though the crime rates in America have dropped, crime still remains a constant headache to the government and citizens alike. Many individuals continue suffering at the hands of a few individuals that have taken up crime as their ‘careers’. Insofar as punishing criminals is concerned, the government performs remarkably well.
However, addressing the underlying factors that are responsible for crime in society are waters the government is reluctant to sail. This is because the government is in charge of these issues, and admitting these problems would mean the government will be its own critic. Many of the sociological factors that are causes of crime can be dealt with squarely by the government, but stiff resistance from the government is a hurdle that still must be overcome.
The states of America are all identical when it comes to their criminal genes. Each state may have different crime rates and different age groups of criminals, but the underlying factors remain the same. The problem of child neglect is one that America continues to grapple with daily. The looming collapse of the institution of the family plays a keynote role in the perpetuation of crime in America. Many children are molded and raised up by society, rather than by their parents. In the event that the society is one rotten with countless vices, it does not take a rocket scientist to project the future of these children. The desire of parents to fulfill their dreams in their academics, careers and businesses, at the expense of their children, leaves many children to raising themselves. This is a role that any rotten society hardly passes out on taking. The lack of good role models in the family and society plays a central in encouraging crime within the youths of America.
The growing popularity of violence in society is also a leading factor in the propagation of crime in society. Many children grow up witnessing violence in their societies, and in different forms of media, to the point that it no longer surprises them. Many children now perceive violence as a part of society that they have to accept and possibly adopt. The result is a large number of innocent youths engaging in violent acts either to prove themselves as strong, or to mimic what the media fraternity has taught them to hold as true. Cases of assault continue to rise with each passing day, highlighting the precarious position society is in today.
The causes of crime in the United States of America include poverty unemployment, peer influence, psychological weaknesses, deprived neighborhoods, media violence, poor parenting, corruption and generational cycles. The sad reality remains that these problems cut across all 50 states of the USA, as a testament of the deep rooted nature of the causes of crime in America.
America finds herself at a very critical time in history. The causes of crime are no longer platonic, but instead have become traits that many in society today consider social norms. Crime now gets plenty of praise and is regarded as a means of survival by a significant number of youth. This highlights the danger society faces. Seeing that many of the causes of crime are deeply rooted in society, the fight against crime in the USA is now tougher than it previously was.
The society has reached a point of inflection, in which it must question its morals and social norms if the fight against crime must be won (Farrington, Welsh, 2007). The recent drops in crime rates do not count for anything; if all the government does is punish criminal offenders. Too much of anything is poison, and the government has focused on punishment for too long a time. The time has come for the government to consider a different approach to tackling crime. This new approach dictates addressing the causes of crime in the United States of America.
The government should consider introducing programs that teach the youth how to deal with peer pressure into the education curriculum as early as grade school.
The institution of the family must receive more attention from the government than it previously did. The government pays a lot of attention to the plight of children in the event of a divorce or death of parents. It is time that the government also pays attention to the upbringing that children in America receive.
Unemployment continues to be an impediment to the fight against crime. The government should create more jobs than it already has, to stop idle youth from engaging in criminal activity.
Equality is a central factor of American culture, seeing that it is also enshrined in the Declaration of Independence. This equality should not stop at people, and neighborhoods must also be made equal. The government should ensure that all neighborhoods in America have access to the same facilities and social amenities (Bohm, Walker, 2005).
The government should set up more stringent regulations governing the display of violence in different forms of media, among them the internet, television and videogames than the present ones. The government must address corruption in security agencies to help in the fight against crime.
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The success of rehabilitation versus punishment has long been a dispute in progress. Two of the responsibilities of the Justice System are to identify the types of crimes committed and to establish appropriate punishments for the crimes committed. The Justice System focuses on deterrence, incapacitation, punishment, and rehabilitation as goals. The evaluation of punishment and rehabilitation will display the success of the programs, the effect on the victims, the control of the offenders, the bearing on the community, and the financial influence on the public. This paper will reflect the various types of management used for those incarcerated and those under municipal guidance.
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Deterrence of crime
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Deterrence is recognized as having two methods of discipline that are vital to the criminal justice system; general deterrence and special deterrence. The intention of general deterrence is to make the public aware of the penalty imposed by law if crimes are committed. The intention of special deterrence is to cause panic to lawbreakers in hopes that potential crimes will be prevented. Both methods are used as scare tactics since past strategies were thought to weaken convicts and instill justice within the community. The methods proved effective if the convicts were rendered helpless, but results had devastating effects on the convicts that lingered well after release. Although both the general deterrence and the special deterrence methods of punishment were widely used and believed to be beneficial, the U.S. Department of Justice reports that in 1994 a total of 272,111 convicts were released from prison in 15 states. By 1997, 67.5% of the same groups of convicts were again arrested for felonies or significant misdemeanors; 46.9% were again convicted, and 25.4% were convicted for a different offense (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2007).
Due to a number of existing reasons, the punishment implemented for committing crimes has not been harsh enough to deter the percentages of illegal acts. Although punishment is enforced, the variety of opportunities made available to prisoners for early release creates a mere short-term solution for society. Convicts can receive early probation for good behavior, voluntarily participating in the educational and therapy programs made available, and attending church services. Even if convicted to serve a life sentence or placed on death row prisoners are given the chance to appeal. Because the death penalty can be a lengthy process the likelihood of convicts appealing has increased. Once taking these options into consideration, individuals contemplating crimes may think the risks are worthwhile (Hargreaves, 2009).
Rather than generating short-term solutions for society by applying criminal punishment, rehabilitation is used as an alternative. Perpetual crime prevention techniques are engendered through rehabilitation. With community supervision, rehabilitation can aid convicts by teaching them how to become a productive member of society. Through rehabilitation, an education and vocational training can instill everlasting knowledge that will enable convicts to become self reliant. Independence promotes confidence which is a steppingstone in becoming a respected individual within a community; subsequently refraining from perpetrating potential crimes (Banks, 2004).
Another type of rehabilitation for convicts is therapy. The primary purpose of therapy is to access the problems that some convicts may experience and provide the appropriate treatment. By reviewing the convicts personal history, physical condition, and mental condition, treatment such as psychotherapy, drug therapy, or a combination of both, can be administered. Understanding and treating the condition is the first step in the rehabilitation of how the convict thinks. Helping the convict discover and understand individual behavior patterns can aid in lessening the yearning or need to commit future criminal activities (2004, p.3).
Effect on victims and victims’ families
The effect on victims and the victim’s families can sometimes create feelings of insignificance. Since many laws cater to the defendant, the victim may feel discriminated against. The duty to enforce the defendant’s constitutional rights may dominate the victim’s rights. Defendants have the right to an immediate trail, the right to legal counsel, the right to meet and oppose witnesses, the right against self discrimination, and the right to accurate legal proceedings and complete righteousness (Rogers, 2006). What about the victim’s rights?
In the past, the rights of victim’s were perceived as less substantial compared to present day. Although victims should have been regarded as the key witness, often victims were considered an aggravation. In 2004, President Bush signed the Crime Victim’s Rights Act that was primarily developed to launch the rights of all victims of crime and all adolescent crimes. These rights are also meant to deliver specific modus operandi, institute particular responsibilities and exceptions, restrict convicts from obtaining revenue from certain events, prevent any unacceptable behavior toward victims, and take accountability for consequences and solutions. The actual rights that were created consists of the right to attend proceedings, the right to reimbursement of expenses, the right to be heard in issues effecting the victim and the family of the victim, the right to be notified of any data relevant to the victim, the right of protection, the right of receiving restitution for losses, the right to receive personal property being held, the right to a speedy trial, and the right to remedies of victims (National center for victims of crime, 2009).
Many victims and members of society believe that individuals convicted of crimes should be required to carry out sentences of punishment opposed to rehabilitation through community supervision. Actual punishment seems more justifiable when committing crimes, especially in regard to violent crimes. Completely ruling people out of society by incarceration without benefits of educational or vocational training is vital to the acknowledgement that criminal acts will not be rewarded but punished; also commonly referred to as just desserts. When convicts do not receive the proper ramifications the victims and families of victims are subject to distress and emotional strain. If the victims and victims’ families’ right to receive restitution is denied then the burden of finances can cause additional hardship (Banks, 2004).
Victims and victim’s families can also receive assistance though community supervision. If a convict is released on probation under stern regulation then monies received through employment are paid to the victims. Additional programs are available throughout various areas that aid in victim assistance. Such programs can offer emotional encouragement, comfort for the grieving, a better understanding of the courts course of actions, and referrals. Committees sponsored through these types of programs also perform outreach to promote awareness. The strategy to increase awareness and accept responsibility for actions is significant to deterring crime rates. The committee members speak directly to the defendants and initiate contact of the defendant with the victims and families of victims.
Effect on the offender
Upon conviction, criminals can undergo a variety of mixed emotions. Feelings of loneliness, depression, and anxiety are common when separated from family. The burden of incarceration on a family unit can be tremendous, being one of the primary reasons for divorce. The capacity of such adverse emotions and mental anguish caused by incarceration can result in feelings of abandonment, hostility, social ineptness, and the growth of recidivism. These issues do not automatically disappear once released from prison, but linger causing further life complications. Unable to socialize properly can have an ill effect on seeking gainful employment. Facing ridicule from the family and community can add to depression, feelings of isolation, and loss of support when dealing with challenges (Rogers, 2006).
If rehabilitation through community supervision is allowed, many concerns can be alleviated. By providing specific criminals a chance for probation in place of a lengthy incarceration, families can remain a unit. Under community supervision, guidance can be given to those requiring substantial employment which can be frustrating once a person is marked as a convict. Defendants falling under the category of committing nonviolent crimes, such as drug related crimes, would be foremost in the rehabilitation program instead of punishment. Criminals regarded as addicts would be more likely to benefit from a rehabilitation program rather than a serial killer.
Social impact on society
Both the acts of punishment and rehabilitation create a social influence that fluctuates. This is due to the rising cost of prisons, rehabilitation centers, the anxiety of convicts coming back into the community, readjustments to living environments, and family conflicts. How the community envisions the courts findings creates much impact within the legal system, political system, and other areas throughout the nation. The need for additional prisons has also been influenced by the punishment and rehabilitation controversies. If the method of punishment is not successful then there will be an increase in criminal activity proving the need for more prisons. If the method of rehabilitation is successful then there will be an increase in prison population that attends the training and therapy, also proving the need for more space. Encouragement from different viewpoints in regard to the enforcement of strategies within the criminal justice system remains an ongoing battle.
Fiscal impact on society
The punishment factor has a tremendous fiscal impact on our nation. Rehabilitation offers a systematic approach to help convicts reconstruct lives. Another purpose of this method is to prevent recidivism, which lowers the prison expenditures. According to a special report from the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, “States spent $29.5 billion for prisons in 2001, about a $5.5 billion increase from 1996, after adjusting for inflation. In 2001, the cost of the prison system procedures exhausted 77% of the funds” (State prison expenditures, 2009).
In the justice system, the methods of rehabilitation and punishment are a vital part of the structure. Both types of strategies can be productive in governing crime if assimilated in an effective manner. Both methods should be based on the type of crimes committed, the history of the convict, and a complete psychological evaluation. By employing punishment along with community supervised rehabilitation the chances of deterring crime could positively increase. Perhaps the battle of punishment versus rehabilitation could be put to an end if officials were to confirm that this is a need for both strategies since different types of individuals commit different types of crimes.
- Banks, Cyndi. (January 30, 2004). The purpose of criminal punishment. Ethics and the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/5144_Banks_II_Proof_Chapter_5.pdf
- Hargreaves, J. (2009, July). Contemporary comments. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 21(1), 148-153. Retrieved August 15, 2009, from International Security & Counter Terrorism Reference Center database
- National Center for Victims of Crime. (2009). Victim Law.
- Rogers, H. (2006). Defendant’s rights, know your rights! Law offices of Hubert N. Rogers III.
- U.S. Department of Justice. (August, 8, 2007). Criminal offenders statistics. Bureau of Justice Statistics.